By Daniel C. Snell
A spouse to the traditional close to East deals scholars and common readers a finished evaluate of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the good. Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians areas specific emphasis on social and cultural background Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds presents an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of analysis
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Extra resources for A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World)
Age and gender profiles are more reliable; managed and domesticated animals usually show selective culling of young males and late killing of adult females. The dog was certainly the first domesticated animal, in the Epipaleolithic in the Levant, about 14,000 years before the present and perhaps much earlier. The dog was unique in that it was domesticated for protection and hunting, a companion and servant rather than a source of meat, milk, hair, or traction, as were the pig, goat, sheep, and cattle that followed.
And the vertical inequalities may not necessarily mean exploitation and oppression, as is often supposed. It is notable that images of leaders in the Uruk period generally did not dominate, but rulers were depicted as unifying and protecting. There are a few seal impressions representing a ruler with captives, but the majority of artworks showed him in ritual contexts or symbolic scenes with animals or building projects. Texts interpreted as ration lists for enslaved or disenfranchised workers may equally be lists of payment for part-time work, in an economy where staple goods acted as money.
The tighter arrangement of sedentary villages and their piles of rubbish (and rats) meant higher rates of infectious disease, and closer contact between humans and animals might favor species-jumping diseases, as organisms associated with animals came into contact with new potential hosts. The repetitive manual labor involved in grain processing could cause skeletal stress (Molleson 2000). Apparently, positives did outweigh negatives, but the persistence of hunting well into the historic periods points out the necessity for keeping alternatives open.
A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World) by Daniel C. Snell